Another known approach is called MSR-like algorithms, widely used from computer science to control theory.    Randomized consensus algorithms can circumvent the impossible outcome of FLP by achieving both security and viability with overwhelming probability, even in the most pessimistic denial-of-service scenarios like a smart denial-of-service attacker on the network.  Some cryptocurrencies, such as Ripple, use a system of validation nodes to validate the Ledger. This system used by Ripple, called Ripple Protocol Consensus Algorithm (RPCA), works in rounds: Step 1: Each server establishes a list of transactions of valid candidates; Step 2: Each server gathers all the candidates from their unique Nodes List (UNL) and votes on their veracity. Step 3: Transactions exceeding the minimum threshold are passed to the next round. .
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