Napoleon sought recognition of the disposition of their property and the geographical reorganization of dioceses by the Church, while Rome aspired to the protection of Catholics and the recognition of a special status of the Catholic Church in the French state.  One of the main concepts of the 1801 concordat between France and Pope Pius VII was that the concordat was drawn up by a commission composed of three representatives of each party. Napoleon Bonaparte, who at that time was the first consul of the French Republic, appointed Joseph Bonaparte, his brother, Emmanuel Crétet, a state councillor, and the theologian physician Étienne-Alexandre Bernier. Pope Pius VII appointed Cardinal Ercole Consalvi, Cardinal Giuseppe Spina, Archbishop of Corinth and his theological advisor, Father Carlo Francesco Maria Caselli.  The French bishops, whether they had returned abroad or in their country of origin, did not participate in the negotiations. The concord, as it was finally disposed, virtually ignored them.  Papal supremacy was also reinforced by the launch of the Crusades by Urban II in 1095, which, in attempting to liberate the Holy Land from Muslim rule, exhaled the aggressive energies of the European nobility under the pope`s leadership. These two efforts, although ultimately unsuccessful, considerably reinforced the papal image in the 12th and 13th centuries. Popes as powerful as Alexander III. (r. 1159-81), Innocent III (r. 1198-1216), Gregory IX (r. 1227-41) and Innocent IV (r.
1243-54) took precedence over the Church, which tried to justify judicial domination over emperors and kings in temporal and spiritual affairs. During the rest of the Middle Ages, the popes fought with the monarchs for power. “Historically, this is a journey, in the sense that it does not prove that Peter was the first leader of the Church,” says Schroth. “If you said to Peter, if you go back into history and say, “Are you the pope?”, he wouldn`t know what you`re talking about. This term “pope” has not come for a few hundred years. “It`s a baroque title. It`s one of those headlines: “Let`s be inflated by the Pope,” Tilley acknowledges. The Concorda of 1801 was an agreement between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII  It remained in force until 1905. It aspired to a national reconciliation between revolutionaries and Catholics and consolidated the Roman Catholic Church as the majority Church of France, restoring most of its civil status.